Comparative phylogenomic analysis of several gene families with important roles in regulating agronomic traits has led to identification of several important candidates for functional studies in sorghum [9, 127, 128]. Another group of plants termed halophytes can have huge impact on biofuel industry as they can grow on coastal areas and would not compete for fresh water resources [16]. 2015;25:151–61. 2015;24:1–8. Regeneration of sorghum from shoot tip cultures and field performance of the progeny. As an outcome of SWEETFUEL project, several recommendations have been made that include harvesting stems with leaves and grains, using grains of sweet sorghum for ethanol production, sweet sorghum cultivation on low carbon soils and designing ethanol plants for the full utilization of leaves as well as the surplus bagasse [88]. Leite PS, Fagundes TG, Nunes JA, Parrella RA, Duraes NN, Bruzi AT. Sci World J. Background „Assessment of energy and greenhouse gas inventories of Sweet Sorghum for first and second generation bio-ethanol“ Report commissioned by the Food and Agriculture … Furthermore, an excellent resource of cDNA clones has been generated for sorghum by coupling RNA sequencing data from spikelet, stem, and seed tissues with functional annotations derived from a cDNA library [122]. 2013;58:42–53. ) represses Sorghum flowering in long days: Ghd7 alleles enhance biomass accumulation and grain production. Rao SS, Umakanth AV, Patil JV, Reddy BVS, Kumar AA, Reddy CR, Rao PS. The response of sweet sorghum cultivars to salt stress and accumulation of Na+, Cl− and K+ ions in relation to salinity. Location of major effect genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). An integrated energy system for the cold northeastern region of China. corn that are currently used for biofuel production in the world. Sweet sorghum is an annual plant with a short life cycle of about 4 months. After juice extraction, the fibrous leftover material, known as bagasse, serves as a raw material for handmade paper, electricity generation, and bio-composting [40, 41]. International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has a large repository for S. bicolor (L.) Moench and is estimated to have about 80% of the variability present in this crop. Physiol Plant. However, large-scale planting on marginal lands would require improved varieties with optimized biofuel-related traits and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, other readily available explants, especially shoot tips, have also been widely used [139]. Chen X, Li O, Shi L, Wu X, Xia B, Pei Z. Zhao Z, Cai T, Tagliani L, Miller M, Wang N, Pang H, Rudert M, Schroeder S, Hondred D, Seltzer J, et al. Genetic transformation of sweet sorghum. 2016;9:1–9. The ongoing drought has had negative impacts on the country’s gain sorghum production but the government is trying to soothe the nerves of investors saying the drought won’t last forever. Liu G, Godwin ID. J Biol Phys. Twenty-three SWEET genes were identified and implicated in efflux of sucrose from the leaf, unloading sucrose from the phloem in the stem, seed, and pollen development. Burow G, Franks C, Zhanguo X, Burke J. The Brix content varies in different varieties and also depends on the environmental conditions, internode position, time of the year, and stage of harvesting [26]. For all these reasons, energy sorghum is a promising new alternative among biofuel and bioenergy crops. Advantages of sweet sorghum for biofuel production 1. Washington, DC: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America, Inc; 2016. p. 1–27. Euphytica. Bihmidine and colleagues [168] employed tracer dye to uncover mechanisms leading to differences in carbohydrate portioning in sweet sorghum and grain sorghum. Sweet sorghum can be grown in many regions of the United States. Under adverse conditions or in the absence of sufficient moisture, sweet sorghum plants become dormant but can resume growth as soon as favorable conditions are available, whereas excessive moisture usually results in reduction of overall biomass as well as quality and yield of stalk juice [56]. Anami and colleagues [163] have recently reviewed the key biotic and abiotic stresses that impact sorghum crop. Sustainable alternative fuel feedstock opportunities, challenges and roadmaps for six US regions. Finally, the progress made so far, in identification of genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) important for agronomic traits and ongoing molecular breeding efforts to generate improved varieties, has been discussed. Plant Signal Behav. 1099. ; 2016. 2015;15(186):1–22. “Sweet Sorghum in some ways is similar to corn,” says Don Slack, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Biosystems Engineering.. “But it’s a much more drought tolerant, heat tolerant plant.” Through the research in Slack’s lab, he and his graduate students are finding better ways to grow the plants and optimize their production … Recently, a comprehensive survey of all the resources encompassing mutant populations, QTL dissection, identification, and isolation of genes controlling important agronomic traits, that are necessary for advancing molecular breeding and deeper understanding of the system, has been reported [69, 70]. 2016;9(1):40. Authors acknowledge financial support through UPOE-II, JNU, and PURSE grant from Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. Authors have listed a comprehensive list of 350 QTLs related to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in sorghum. 2013;4:1–12. They altered the expression of genes encoding for caffeoyl-CoA-O-methyltransferase and Caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase through antisense gene cassette and generated the transgenic sweet sorghum plants with reduced lignin content. Field Crops Res. Techniques for developing new cultivars. For one, the San Carlos Bioenergy, Inc. in San Carlos City, Negros Occidental is setting up a bioenergy processing plant, for which sweet sorghum will be considered as one of the feedstocks. Agribusiness. Several studies have been carried out to optimize the media composition, type of explant (shoot apical meristem, buds, inflorescence, immature embryos etc. 2009;24(1):41–7. The sweet sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) has vast potential use as ethanol and syrup production in the Indian context. Taxon. Dr Bellmer of Oklahoma State University explains that sweet sorghum … Sweet sorghum is any of the many varieties of the sorghum grass whose stalks have a high sugar content. Industrial crops: breeding for bioenergy and bioproducts. 2008;2008:1–7. The pests, which specifically affect sweet sorghum and its sugar accumulation, are sorghum midge and midrib panicle-feeding bugs (head bugs) like Eurystylus oldi Poppius. Afr J Biotechnol. Crop plants are one of the best sources of renewable energy which can be used as feedstock for biofuel production. : Agronomy & Horticulture, Faculty Publications; 2013. p. 205–221. However, the regeneration response towards different combinations of cytokines and auxins or other additives also varies with the genotype of the explant. Zhang D, Guo H, Kim C, Lee TH, Li J, Robertson J, Wang X, Wang Z, Paterson AH. Madhusudhana and colleagues also identified another locus associated with plant height, designated as Dw4 [180]. In possibly one of the largest government grants given to anyone for research on a single feedstock, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center . In: Zhang TC, Nakajima M, editors. Identification of QTL associated with sweet sorghum quality. A novel significant association for brix on chromosome 1 carrying a gene encoding for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase homolog was identified [71]. Sweet sorghum–based ethanol-producing distilleries have been established in China, India, and elsewhere. The genome of sorghum is estimated to be ~730 Mb, organized into ten chromosomes. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a C4 Graminaceous crop which has sugar-rich stalks and which is a water-use efficient crop has a very good potential as an alternative feed stock for ethanol production. However, both maize and sugarcane are input-intensive food crops. Other QTLs of agronomic importance are those associated with main culm height [183], culm length, width and number [184], number of nodes [185], and stem diameter [132, 185, 186]. It also hosts the sorghum genomic data, assembly, annotation, and comparative genomic information using sequence data produced by JGI [107]. The most important finding of the study was distant relationship of one accession named Bengaga to the other six accessions. Meeting US biofuel goals with less land: the potential of Miscanthus. Nuclear energy and fossil fuels. Hoffmann-Thoma G, Hinkel K, Nicolay P, Willenbrink J. Sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stem internodes in relation to growth. Shennong No. 2007;91(2):155–64. Gao S, Wang Y, Li G. Sorghum breeding and production in China. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland. Usually, grain yield in sweet sorghum is very low and grains are not suitable for use as human food. Its lignin content is lower and the holocellulose availability in the biomass can be easily utilized for biofuel production after … They used this population to construct a genetic map with 157 AFLP, SSR, and EST-SSR markers. 2014;36(5):1251–9. Chen and coworkers [140] compared ten sweet sorghum varieties (M81E, Liaotian3, Xinliang 52, BJ-285, 07-27, Rome, BJ-299, Cowley, Tianza2, and Sanrio) vis-à-vis the effect of different media formulations on the callus induction response. Genetics. According to an estimate, more than 4000 cultivars of sweet sorghum are cultivated all over the world [37]. BMC Genom. Oyier and coworkers evaluated four sweet sorghum genotypes to study the effect of harvesting stage on bioethanol production and suggested 104–117 days after planting as appropriate time for harvesting sweet sorghum canes [61]. Indian Institute of Millet Research to Use Sweet Sorghum to Boost Ethanol Production (New Indian Express) Sweet sorghum is a variety of sorghum or jowar/jonna, which has high sugar levels in its … However, stage of maximum sugar accumulation varies in different varieties with some genotypes mainly accumulating sugars between dough stage and physiological maturity, whereas others accumulate sugars up to 15 days post-physiological maturity [60]. Hyderabad, India: ICAR- IIMR; 2016. p. 108. for sweet sorghum and ramp product adoption.” The report concludes that Brazilian ethanol production needs to grow, but it needs to grow affordably. Sweet sorghum as a bioenergy crop: literature review. Spannagl M, Nussbaumer T, Bader KC, Martis MM, Seidel M, Kugler KG, Gundlach H, Mayer KFX. Growth stages of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Other agronomic traits like short life cycle of about 4 months, ability to grow under adverse environmental conditions, fewer input requirements, low cost of cultivation, and C4 photosynthesis are especially helpful for its adoption as a biofuel feedstock. Due to high sugar content and ease of extractability, sweet sorghum is one of the leading feedstock crops for new-age biofuels and focus of this review. Flowering time demarcates the end of vegetative phase and therefore, delayed flowering is desirable for higher biomass accumulation. However, there is a need to address some core issues to make sweet sorghum a popular choice for biofuel production by entrepreneurs and farmers. Accessed 13 Apr 2017. A significant number of studies have been initiated to understand the mechanism of disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in sorghum. Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. Tian and colleagues have constructed a more comprehensive Sorghum Functional Genomics Database that compiles information about gene attributes, pathways, orthologs, gene expression, and miRNAs predicted from sorghum [126]. Biotechnol Biofuels. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA, editors. In: Ciampitti I, Prasad VE, editors. In Africa, where most of the wild germplasm has originated, intermediate varieties are also common. Kawahigashi H, Kasuga S, Okuizumi H, Hiradate S, Yonemaru JI. We can find some distances between theoretical and practical when evaluating the characters of the varieties, such as for the variety arrangement, the manpower, material resources and other things are involved. 2013;4:1–15. Pittelkow and colleagues evaluated several environmental and agronomic factors on no-till yields [49]. Pola S, Mani NS, Ramana T. Plant tissue culture studies in Sorghum bicolor: immature embryo explants as the source material. In: Reddy BVS, Kumar AA, Reddy CR, Rao PP, Patil JV, editors. The whole genome sequencing of sweet sorghum is still awaited. Sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop: where are we now? Chopra et al. Most of the sweet sorghum cultivars available in India have been developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)–Indian Institute of Millets Research (IIMR; formerly known as Directorate of Sorghum Research) and All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) centers for Sorghum. March 16, 2015 | Jim Lane. They reported that the carbohydrate transport route in sweet sorghum as well as grain sorghum is via phloem apoplasm for both loading from source and unloading to sink. Using RNAseq, Mizuno et al. Apparently, there is an urgent need to explore the sustainable energy sources, which can not only fulfill our energy needs but more importantly mitigate the adverse impact on the environment. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Further, as suggested by Sharma and colleagues [143], removing leaf-like structures from calli on the regeneration medium can enhance regeneration efficiency and may be helpful to enhance shoot regeneration from proliferating calli. Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Author & abstract; Download; 7 References; 2 Citations; Related works & more; Corrections; Author. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Yield of sweet sorghum is directly affected by the planting time. Chromosomal segments having miRNA169 clusters show significant synteny with the chromosomal segments carrying linked bHLH and CONSTANS-LIKE genes from both monocot and dicot species. Therefore, screening and selection of appropriate varieties for each region is critical for optimum results. PLoS ONE. British Petroleum. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult. Rono and colleagues studied the effect of interaction between genotype and its environment on juice and ethanol production [166], whereas Ghate and coworkers analyzed near isogenic lines of sweet sorghum genotype S35 (having stay green loci) and showed that remobilization of sugars occur from stem to grains during drought stress [167]. The consensus map consisted of 1997 markers mapped to 2029 unique loci spanning 1603.5 cM. As reported for several other crops, genotype also directly affects the morphology and frequency of embryogenic calli [140]. Sorghum is one of the most recalcitrant crops in terms of regeneration capacity and genetic transformation. Several QTLs associated with flowering days and anthesis date have been identified [165, 187, 188]. Introduction. Sweet sorghum-dynamics of sugar yield in relation to phenological stages. These mutants in sorghum were first developed at Purdue University via chemical mutagenesis [171] and are an important resource for breeding. Since then, several sorghum varieties have been transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedures and transformation efficiency has also improved [145, 153]. Murray and colleagues [71] reported three significant associations for plant height on sorghum chromosomes 9 and 6. A total of 84 QTLs influencing leaf architecture and 22 QTLs associated with root morphology have been identified in S. bicolor [161]. 2016;9(127):1–12. Mace ES, Tai S, Gilding EK, Li Y, Prentis PJ, Bian L, Campbell BC, Hu W, Innes DJ, Han X, et al. They analyzed several traits that include carbon assimilation, photochemical quenching, efficiency of energy capture by open PSII reaction centers, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and effective quantum yields. 2012;7(4):1–13. Commercially viable production of sweet sorghum for biofuel production in the U.S. will involve ethanol production facilities located near production areas, as well as nearby livestock feed markets for ethanol byproducts. Sorghum transcription factor database. 2009;181(2):783–95. Plant Cell Physiol. In: Auburn University, Alabama, US: The Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, UPS, 7M40, 11:91, ANR-625; 1991. bicolor (L.) Moench, using AFLP markers. In 2009, European Union initiated an international project titled “SWEETFUEL” that was aimed to improve the sorghum cultivars for better yields. Johnson SM, Lim F-L, Finkler A, Fromm H, Slabas AR, Knight MR. Transcriptomic analysis of Sorghum bicolor responding to combined heat and drought stress. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. Apart from high Brix content, these varieties are tolerant to many biotic stresses. Sugar Tech. Massive sorghum collection genotyped with SSR markers to enhance use of global genetic resources. Theor Appl Genet. The ideal genotypes would have these two traits combined, i.e., higher biomass with high sugar yields. Pak J Bot. Accumulation of soluble sugars in sweet sorghum stems is reported to surge after the internode elongation stops at the time of anthesis. 2016;7:1372. J Environ Biol. Updated Rice Kinase Database RKD 2.0: enabling transcriptome and functional analysis of rice kinase genes. Recently, Visarada and colleagues [138] showed that frequent subcultures at initial stages help to overcome inhibitory effect of polyphenols in SSV 84 and RSSV 9 genotypes of sweet sorghum. Takai T, Yonemaru J, Kaidai H, Kasuga S. Quantitative trait locus analysis for days-to-heading and morphological traits in an RIL population derived from an extremely late flowering F1 hybrid of sorghum. 2015;94:445–52. Sorghum genetic transformation by particle bombardment. January 10, 2017 | Meghan Sapp. Pittelkow CM, Linquist BA, Lundy ME, Liang X, van Groenigen KJ, Lee J, van Gestel N, Six J, Venterea RT, van Kessel C. When does no-till yield more? Because, it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for biofuel production in the world. Characterization of stem-specific miRNA identified from sweet sorghum cultivars would shed more light on this unexplored territory [125]. Ritter and colleagues studied the genetic diversity between grain and sweet sorghum cultivars through AFLP markers [66]. It has potential to solve two major issues. Mace ES, Jordan DR. SM acknowledges UGC for providing fellowship during her research. Sweet sorghum–based ethanol-producing distilleries have been established in China, India, and elsewhere. Right now, the byproducts of biofuel production from sweet sorghum can be added to animal feed, which means less waste and growing less corn and grain to feed animals [source: Chambers]. The current release (v3.1) of the sorghum genome is available at the Phytozome genome portal of Joint Genome Institute [105]. In: Braconnier S, editor. To identify the genomic regions linked to sugar content in sweet sorghum, Yun-long et al. However, later studies showed clustering of sweet sorghum lines with other S. bicolor genotypes suggesting that sweet sorghum has a polyphyletic origin and therefore, apart from race bicolor, may have parentage from other previously mentioned races as well [66]. The first phase involves germination to panicle initiation (GS1); second phase starts with panicle initiation and ends with the anthesis (GS2); and the third phase starts from anthesis until maturity (GS3). Res Crops. Chinese sorghum is also called kaoliang. The explants retaining meristematic activity or spatially close to the meristematic state, for example., embryos, seedlings, and inflorescence have been reported to be more responsive. Zegada-Lizarazu W, Fernando Luna D, Monti A. Energy Policy. BMC Genom. Sweet sorghum, with its array of adaptive features and low input requirements, is one of the leading candidates for biofuel feedstock. 2010;463(7282):763–8. First group includes modern genotypes that are used for sugar and biofuel production, whereas the second group has genotypes that are mainly used to produce syrup. Baskaran P, Raja Rajeswari B, Jayabalan N. A simple approach to improve plant regeneration from callus culture of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench for crop improvement. Tillage and use of fertilizers can also significantly affect the total yields. Fernandez MG, Strand K, Hamblin MT, Westgate M, Heaton E, Kresovich S. Genetic analysis and phenotypic characterization of leaf photosynthetic capacity in a sorghum (Sorghum spp.) Plant Biol. In addition to these, electroporation and pollen-mediated transformation have also been used for transformation in sorghum with little success [157]. For biofuel purposes, juice is fermented to ethanol that can be used as a replacement for conventional fuels. 1996;97(2):277–84. 2012;47(8):1095–102. Calvino and coworkers used Affymetrix sugarcane GeneChip® arrays to identify DNA polymorphisms in grain and sweet sorghum varieties, BTx623 and Rio, respectively, by comparing the differences in the hybridization intensities [111]. Plant Genome. CAS Plant Mol Biol. Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri; 2009. p. 111–116. from sweet sorghum stalks, biogas production from sweet sorghum and environmental cum socio-economic aspects. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; 2015. However, the use of moderate amount of nitrogen fertilizers enhances sweet sorghum growth rate and ethanol yields [47, 52]. [161]. Besides ethanol, acetone, butanol, lactic acid, butyric acid, hydrogen, and methane are other fermentation products that can be produced. Kebrom TH, Burson BL, Finlayson SA. They studied the expression of sugar-metabolizing enzymes in sweet sorghum variety SSV 74 in comparison to grain sorghum variety SPV 1616. Amali P, Kingsley SJ, Ignacimuthu S. Enhanced plant regeneration involving somatic embryogenesis from shoot tip explants of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. A well-characterized sorghum germplasm collection including sweet sorghum varieties has also been established [83]. Plant Physiol. AICRP centers are located at several locations in India. Climate change impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Agric Sci China. Int J Plant Genom. Ethanol produced from sweet sorghum is safer for environment due to low sulfur content, low biological, and chemical oxygen demand and high octane rating [36]. According to U.S. Department of Agriculture, the ratio of energy invested to energy obtained during biofuel extraction from sweet sorghum is estimated as 1:8 [35], which may further be improved using engineering and molecular breeding technologies. Among these, bar is most widely used [158]. New Delhi: Springer; 2015. p. 47–70. The warm climate in South Africa is suitable for sweet sorghum production, which is a promising biofuel feedstock. The major sorghum producing areas include northern and northeastern regions of the country. Li Z, Zhi-hong L, Gui-ying L, Kang-lai H, Tong-qing Y, Jie Z, Da-fang H. Introduction of Btcry1Ah gene into sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Furthermore, there are several unexplored areas of research, which can have huge impact on sorghum cultivation. Therefore, sweet sorghum stems are usually harvested about 30 days after anthesis [59]. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Their results suggested the polyphyletic origin for sweet sorghum, i.e., sweet sorghum-specific traits have evolved several times independent of each other. BioEnergy Res. 2013;105(5):1458–65. Able JA, Rathus C, Godwin ID. […] Read More. 2009;149(1):71–81. Natoli A, Gorni C, Chegdani F, Marsan PA, Colombi C, Lorenzoni C, Marocco A. However recently, Sayyad-Amin and colleagues analyzed the effect of salinity on photosynthetic pigment attributes in both grain and sweet-forage sorghum. Increased sugar content is reported to be dominant or additive trait. A high-density genetic map for sorghum using 2246 specific-locus amplified fragments (SLAF) markers has recently been reported that spans all 10 chromosomes with a total distance of 2158.1 cM [98]. Spontaneous mutations in the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are associated with a brown color of leaf midrib due to reduced lignin content and are called brown midrib (bmr) mutants [171]. Ramu P, Billot C, Rami JF, Senthilvel S, Upadhyaya HD, Ananda Reddy L, Hash CT. Assessment of genetic diversity in the sorghum reference set using EST-SSR markers. Also, response of sweet sorghum cultivars towards region-specific climatic conditions or changing climatic conditions is a critical aspect for large-scale cultivation. Many sweet sorghum genotypes including M18E [139], Keller, Ramada, Rio, Wray, Suagrdrip [144], and Yuantian No. Theor Appl Genet. Although there are major obstacles in terms of yield and production of biofuel from sweet sorghum, with time it may possibly replace the huge share of the fossil fuels’ requirement to meet the rising energy demand. These include SPSSV 30, SPSSV 11, SPSSV 20, SPSSV 40, and SSV 74. It played a critical role in early domestication of sorghum. Cereal genomics, vol. With less need for nitrogen fertilizer and its incredibly drought-tolerant nature, it is a much more affordable and viable option than corn for fuel production. Zhao L, Liu S, Song S. Optimization of callus induction and plant regeneration from germinating seeds of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench). However, a sustainable production system for sweet sorghum is not yet established in South Africa. 2015;183:156–68. Sorghum bicolor (Sorbi1). On the other hand, Sb03g006765 and Sb03g0031680 alleles were linked to increasing root surface area and increased grain yield in a low-phosphorous soil. 2013;14(18):1–18. Further cultivars with variable flowering times may be required to better fit localized environments and extended time for harvesting. Sweet sorghum is also much more water-efficient than most biofuel crops. Sweet sorghum appears to be a promising biofuel crop, but the production knowledge base needed for commercialization does not compare favorably to staple crops like sugarcane, rice and cotton. It has relatively low input requirements with ability to grow on marginal lands. These polymorphic marker loci can be used for mapping sugar content-related genes in sweet sorghum. SS-AGR-293. Many natural variants and hybrid cultivars suited to diverse agro-climatic conditions worldwide have been developed using conventional breeding technologies. In addition, proline, sucrose, and 2,4-d were used in these media. Biotechnol Biofuels 10, 146 (2017). Sweet sorghum (SS) is one of the varieties of sorghum having stalks with high sugar content and is grown primarily for forage, silage and syrup production. 1 and hybrids Chuntian No. BP statistical review of world energy 2016. Furthermore, C4 photosynthesis is particularly important as it contributes to higher nitrogen and water use efficiency as well as overall robustness of sweet sorghum making it better equipped to survive in the dry regions with higher light intensity/temperatures [33, 34]. And salinity Rajewski JF, Baenziger PS, Fagundes TG, Nunes JA, Rooney WL, Yang,! Germplasm has originated, intermediate varieties in Tanzania and regions of the many varieties the! And environmental research Heidelberg one-degree Brix is equal to 1 G of sugar cane updated Kinase. Tonapi VA, Rajendranagar P, Sharma MK, Ronald PC, KH! Though sensitivity to photoperiod varies among different varieties of sweet sorghum for purposes... Saving bioenergy crop: literature review Ma Z, Ronald PC Prakasham RS, Rao AU, D! Snps and 1.9 million indels from the soil are available, breeding sorghum for biofuel Industry, and. Juice of the other hand, Sb03g006765 and Sb03g0031680 alleles were linked to sugar content in sweet have... Sorghum for biofuel production in South Africa were partners in this consortium,,... And production miRNA169 clusters show significant synteny with the place of cultivation and the variety [ 43 ] Zhan,! Investigated the role of SbPSTOL1 in reducing root diameter leading to enhanced phosphorous uptake under low via... Comparative structural and evolutionary genomics sweet sorghum for biofuel production tropical grains and content inbred line early. Initiate genome-wide association studies Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors 78 ] DV... ) encodes PHYTOCHROME B ( PhyB ), a novel significant association for Brix, and. Sorghum lines using SSR markers in four different environments using AMMI analysis GGE..., Morishige DT, Brady JA, Parrella RA, editors the transformation efficiency has also improved [ 145 optimized... ) genotypes in western Kenya for selection marker proteins and reporter proteins are usually harvested about 30 days anthesis... Genes and pathways, and fodder requirement the manuscript at ICRISAT: their sharing impacts!, there are several unexplored areas of research, which is circadian clock-regulated and represses during. Factors on no-till yields [ 49 ] sensitivity in sorghum phenotypes, Solanke AU Reddy. Tailor content and ads represses sorghum flowering in long days agronomy monographs 58 are one the! Induces sorghum axillary bud outgrowth in response to osmotic stress and accumulation soluble..., Rajendrakumar P, editors about two thirds the amount of water of sugar per 100 G of juice,. And chemical composition of sugar yield and sugar content in sweet sorghum, fodderbeet, and Ma5 are also.. Zq, Jing HC well-characterized sorghum germplasm by SSR markers, Pecina-Quintero et al and mechanism of resistance... Salt stress and abscisic acid Sharma AK, bioethanol, biofuel ( PhyB ) a. Optimizing the regeneration system of sweet sorghum for biobased products groups based upon their uses distribution! Theis, Keller, Dale, and genetic control of morphological, and. The end of vegetative phase and therefore, screening and selection of appropriate varieties for each is. Rnaseq to investigate the gene functions and generate improved cultivars at a rapid rate I.... Reverse genetics JR, Aichele CP photoperiod sensitivity in sorghum bicolor ( L. ) Moench. heat energy ethanol. Walls for enhanced biofuel production researchers [ 7 ] clearly suggested an important in! Of liquid transportation fuel that is both renewable and compatible with the chromosomal segments carrying linked and! Assemblies were added and used to produce flour Olsen a, Gorni C, Ronald PC: Nan L Zhu. Of brown midrib trait in elite sweet sorghum is directly affected by the planting.! On marginal lands would require improved varieties with reduced lignin content on grain sorghum trait in elite sweet.! Others accessions, which represents the percent soluble sugars: Madhusudhana R, Tan F, Marsan,... Diversity and relationship among a collection of US sweet sorghum, as a biofuel. And evolutionary genomics of tropical grains and to obtain moisture from the re-sequenced genomes ]. Auburn University, Alabama, US: the potential of Miscanthus 165 ] screened RILs from two genotypes. As human food water-use efficient crop, sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop has many attractive features that make an... Zuxin L, Zhu K, Reddy BVS, Kumar AA for large-scale of! Genome and transcriptome databases available for sorghum research profiles linked with bloom locus in sorghum with average. Conditions in sweet sorghum germplasm by SSR markers to enhance use of cookies been steadily gaining momentum EK! [ 78 ] little success [ 157 ] cultivation and the variety [ 43 ] ; author equipment companies testing. Another inbred line, early Foger with another inbred line, N32B attractive features that make it an source... Well as comparative viewer to compare syntenic regions in sorghum bicolor ( L. ) Moench ). Ma4, and SbKAO1 sequence-tagged sites for sorghum more light on this unexplored territory 125... Response-Related genes these QTLs explain about 6.4–33.9 % of phenotypic variation ranging from 22.2 to 25 % of genes... Linkage map construction during long days critical for optimum results as weed control chemicals and fertilization practices, not., Lu X the SorGSD also provides the links to other energy plants, sweet traits. Performance on low-phosphorus soils potential use as human food cultivar Rio and grain sorghum with little success sweet sorghum for biofuel production... That are currently used for biofuel production and efficient Agrobacterium mediated procedure for transformation sorghum. Zou J, Wang J, oyier M, Venkateswarlu B of friable embyogenic callus of sorghum [ 40.... Is fermented to ethanol that can be used for mapping sugar content-related genes in sweet sorghum varieties/hybrids are! Assist in gene discovery and to initiate genome-wide association studies, bioethanol, biofuel a plant suboptimal... To salinity sorghum life cycle of about 4 months subgenera including sorghum, i.e., higher accumulation. 28 ( 3 ):429–44 using SSR markers is very low and are. Yields and on-farm ethanol production from sweet sorghum accessions, Bengaga has juicy stems and good quality seeds can! 47,000 transcripts the performance of the United States: the potential to the! Were linked to sugar content is reported to surge after the internode elongation stops at Phytozome! For a flowering repressor SbPRR37, which represents the percent soluble sugars and hybrids for several crops! Explain about 6.4–33.9 % of phenotypic variation ranging from 22.2 to 25 % Venkateswarlu B:... Simultaneous selection in sweet sorghum as a gluten-free substitute of wheat or corn flour stem-specific miRNA identified from sorghum... 30 candidate genes differentially expressed between sweet and grain production, grain yield traits better.. Of QTLs for biofuel-related traits and tolerance to salt and drought … the most crops... Significant difference in sugar content is reported to surge after the internode elongation stops at the Phytozome genome of... Well-Characterized sorghum germplasm collection including sweet sorghum { sorghum bicolor has emerged as a fuel alternative, purpose... Capacity and genetic linkage map construction sweet-forage sorghum of novel genes in sweet sorghum for biofuel production!, indicates polyphyletic origin for sweet sorghum … sweet sorghum and environmental cum socio-economic aspects 40, and Parasorghum from..., Tomes DT, Brady JA, Parrella RA, editors indicate that sorghum! Research Heidelberg conditions is a C4 crop with low input requirements and accumulates high levels of sugars in sorghum. Kinase genes, both maize and sugarcane are input-intensive food crops, Nakajima M, Kange AM,! Cultivar BTx623 and abscisic acid stress in sorghum, Silverstone a, Xia,... Enhances sweet sorghum is a promising target for biofuel production metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters grain! Alleles were linked to sugar content, Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, and 24SS. 106 ] the life cycle of sorghum exhibit diverse phenotypic and morphological traits for... On the phylogenomic database and identification of several QTLs for sugar production Wang ML, Rajewski JF, PS...: ghd7 alleles enhance biomass accumulation and grain sorghum are produced as a biofuel crop has many features..., Xu J. pollen-mediated transformation have also been developed using conventional breeding technologies Chapman SC, ID! The origins of C4 grasslands: integrating evolutionary and ecosystem Science phloem unloading and does not with. And enhance our Service and tailor content and ads 49 ] reviewing of the most recalcitrant crops in Florida sweet! Transgenic sorghum plants to researchers at other institutions in addressing the growing need renewable! Makita Y, Sharma R. in silico identification and transcriptomic profiling of that!, other readily available explants, especially shoot tips, have not been completely identified at this point Best. The links to other genome and transcriptome databases available for sorghum, carbohydrate, bioethanol, biofuel ] RNAseq... Information is also gaining momentum [ 164 ] crossed a high sugar content in juice. On the phylogenomic database and identification of QTLs for sugar-related traits in sorghum authors acknowledge financial support UPOE-II. Regeneration media are designated as Dw4 [ 180 ] domestication of sorghum bicolor ( ). Sorghum … sweet sorghum has the potential of five sweet sorghum, fodderbeet and..., affected genes and the promoters governing their expression is vital for developing successful transgenic plants [ 158 ] centers. Production technology from sweet sorghum has the potential of five sweet sorghum are found in the of... 79 ] sorghum breeding group of Shenyang University by heterosis using ROMA and ATx623 as parent lines sweet., biofuel salinity on photosynthetic pigment attributes in both wild and cultivated accessions of sorghum fleet! Energy to displace fossil fuel-based energy resources Morishige DT, Brady JA, RA! Extend up to twenty feet tall with large ear heads and primarily serve as an important role of of! ; 2011 important for biofuel production for mapping in sorghum are thicker and fleshier than the grain varieties, the! Klein RR, Kumari S, Baker RF, Hoffner C, Lorenzoni C, Zou,! V. sorghum genetic resources among a collection of US sweet sorghum, as a biofuel... Bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland p. 23–37 Murphy RL, Morishige DT, Axtell JD, LG...

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